c program

        Article about Programming
Languages (C/C++/Java etc)

Fresh2refresh is an online programming tutorial portal which
offers programming languages in tutorial format, designed for new learners,
experienced programmers, students and for the corporate level developers who
want to learn and refresh their programming skills in C, SQL and Java etc.
Fresh2refresh also provides online compiler for many programming languages.


  • The C
    programming language is a structure oriented programming language,
    developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie
  • C
    programming language features were derived from an earlier language called
    “B” (Basic Combined Programming Language – BCPL)
  • C
    language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system
  • In
    1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition “The
    C Programming Language” and commonly known as K&R C
  • In
    1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a
    committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The
    resulting definition, the ANSI standard, or “ANSI C”, was completed late

SQL Language:

SQL tutorial – SQL is referred as Structured Query Language,
a standard query language certified by ANSI and ISO. SQL is used to access
different databases like SQL Server, MySQL, MS Access, Sybase, Oracle, DB2,
Informix and Teradata etc.

In this SQL tutorial, you will learn how to use
the SQL language to,

Store, retrieve and manipulate data in SQL

Select, insert, update and delete rows in SQL

Create database and tables in SQL server and all
other SQL concepts.

This SQL tutorial is designed for fresher’s who are
beginners for SQL, students and also for the corporate level developers who
want to learn and refresh their SQL skills.

Java tutorial:

Java is an object oriented high level
programming language, developed by Sun Microsystems. Java software development
was initiated in 1991 and released in 1995. Java is a very popular
programming language which is used everywhere to develop many applications.

Java is open
source software that can be downloaded for free.

Java is simple,
reliable, secure and portable which can run on Windows, UNIX and many other
operating systems. Java application runs similarly on all hardware and
operating systems that produces similar outputs.

This Java
tutorial for beginners is developed for new learners, students and also for the
corporate level developers who wants to refresh their Java programming skills.


JSP Tutorial:

JSP stands for Java Server Pages. JSP
Technology is used to create dynamic web pages. JSP is used to build web

JSP was developed to solve the drawbacks of
Java Servlets. Initially, when the servlets were developed, there was no
separation between the user interface and the business logic. Hence JSP was
developed with complete presentation logic of the web application, separating
the business logic out of the presentation logic.

Life cycle of JSP:

JSP is translated
into servlet code.

Servlet code is
compiled to byte code.

Class loading.

Instantiation of
the servlet object.

Initialization by
calling Jspinit() method.

Processing the
request by calling _JspService() method.

Destroy by
invoking the JspDestroy() method.



With XMLs popularity, and close relation between XML and Java, IBMs
certification for XML is becoming popular. We offer now a tutorial on XML for
IBM certification. This tutorial has been written by Vibha Verma. We are
thankful to Vibha for making her notes available for Java prepare readers.

This tutorial highlights important concepts
that you must know for IBM’s XML Certification exam. Read the tutorial when you
have grasped the fundamentals of the XML technology and want to prepare for the
Certification exam.


Fresh2Refresh.com provides
online technical discussion forums for users to ask their questions/doubts on
any topics in C programming language, C interview questions, SQL language, Java
programming, XML, JSP and other programming languages and get their doubts
clarified. Experienced and knowledgeable users are requested to help
the other users to clarify their doubts and questions.

Online Compilers:

Now-a-days, there are many online compilers available over internet which is
very useful for programming professionals and students to create, compile and
executing their programs within few seconds. Also, cloud computing is a modern
technology which provides more convenient and faster network access.


1.       Step1:
Type or copy & paste your programs in “Source code” box.

2.       Step2:
If you use any standard input functions in your programs such as scanf(),
getc(), gets() etc or related functions which accepts input from keyboard, feed
your inputs line by line before compiling and running the program in the
“Stdin” box.

3.       Step3:
Choose your compiler from radio button or from drop down list.

4.       Step4:
Click on “Compile & Run” button to compile and execute your programs.

5.       Step5:
You will get output of your programs immediately in “Output” box.

Following are few of online
compilers and editors available over internet.

1. C compiler
2. C++ compiler
3. Java Compiler
4. SQL editor
5. JavaScript
6. PHP
7. Python
8. C#
9. CSS
10. RUBY
11. Objective-C
12. Pascal
13. PERL
14. VB.NET
15. HTML

C interview questions:

Fresh2refresh.com provides C interview questions also for users. Once you
have understood/learnt all the C programming language concepts, you can visit C
Interview Questions for mostly asked C interview questions with answers. We
have collected and integrated all different types of C interview questions with
answers for our users.

C programs:

This C programs section offers
many C programs which are useful for C programmers and students. Also, C programs
are discussed in C program
discussion Forum
. If users look for any C programs that are not
listed in this section, kindly create a new topic in our Forum.

certification questions:

Our Java certification questions provide all the
information that you may need to prepare for Sun’s Java Certification. It
covers all the topics of the Java Certification (SCJP) exam. Besides a large
number of sample questions for each topic, the site has FAQ on Java
Certification and links to a large number of Certification sites.


Fresh2Refresh.com – An online programming tutorial website for C programming, SQL tutorial, Java tutorial, online compiler, C++ tutorial, Unix tutorial etc.)


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