C++ programming tutorial

Article about Programming Languages (C/C++/Java etc)

Fresh2refresh is an online programming tutorial portal which offers programming languages in tutorial format, designed for new learners, experienced programmers, students and for the corporate level developers who want to learn and refresh their programming skills in C, SQL and Java etc. Fresh2refresh also provides online compiler for many programming languages.

 C programming:

  • The C programming language is a structure oriented programming language, developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie
  • C programming language features were derived from an earlier language called “B” (Basic Combined Programming Language – BCPL)
  • C language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system
  • In 1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition “The C Programming Language” and commonly known as K&R C
  • In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The resulting definition, the ANSI standard, or “ANSI C”, was completed late 1988.

SQL Language:

SQL tutorial – SQL is referred as Structured Query Language, a standard query language certified by ANSI and ISO. SQL is used to access different databases like SQL Server, MySQL, MS Access, Sybase, Oracle, DB2, Informix and Teradata etc.

·         In this SQL tutorial, you will learn how to use the SQL language to,

·         Store, retrieve and manipulate data in SQL server.

·         Select, insert, update and delete rows in SQL tables.

·         Create database and tables in SQL server and all other SQL concepts.

This SQL tutorial is designed for fresher’s who are beginners for SQL, students and also for the corporate level developers who want to learn and refresh their SQL skills.

Java tutorial:

Java is an object oriented high level programming language, developed by Sun Microsystems. Java software development was initiated in 1991 and released in 1995. Java is a very popular programming language which is used everywhere to develop many applications.

·         Java is open source software that can be downloaded for free.

·         Java is simple, reliable, secure and portable which can run on Windows, UNIX and many other operating systems. Java application runs similarly on all hardware and operating systems that produces similar outputs.

·         This Java tutorial for beginners is developed for new learners, students and also for the corporate level developers who wants to refresh their Java programming skills.

JSP Tutorial:

JSP stands for Java Server Pages. JSP Technology is used to create dynamic web pages. JSP is used to build web applications.

JSP was developed to solve the drawbacks of Java Servlets. Initially, when the servlets were developed, there was no separation between the user interface and the business logic. Hence JSP was developed with complete presentation logic of the web application, separating the business logic out of the presentation logic.

Life cycle of JSP:

·         JSP is translated into servlet code.

·         Servlet code is compiled to byte code.

·         Class loading.

·         Instantiation of the servlet object.

·         Initialization by calling Jspinit() method.

·         Processing the request by calling _JspService() method.

·         Destroy by invoking the JspDestroy() method.

XML Tutorial:

With XMLs popularity, and close relation between XML and Java, IBMs certification for XML is becoming popular. We offer now a tutorial on XML for IBM certification. This tutorial has been written by Vibha Verma. We are thankful to Vibha for making her notes available for Java prepare readers.

This tutorial highlights important concepts that you must know for IBM’s XML Certification exam. Read the tutorial when you have grasped the fundamentals of the XML technology and want to prepare for the Certification exam.


Fresh2Refresh.com provides online technical discussion forums for users to ask their questions/doubts on any topics in C programming language, C interview questions, SQL language, Java programming, XML, JSP and other programming languages and get their doubts clarified. Experienced and knowledgeable users are requested to help the other users to clarify their doubts and questions.

Online Compilers:

Now-a-days, there are many online compilers available over internet which is very useful for programming professionals and students to create, compile and executing their programs within few seconds. Also, cloud computing is a modern technology which provides more convenient and faster network access.


1.       Step1: Type or copy & paste your programs in “Source code” box.

2.       Step2: If you use any standard input functions in your programs such as scanf(), getc(), gets() etc or related functions which accepts input from keyboard, feed your inputs line by line before compiling and running the program in the “Stdin” box.

3.       Step3: Choose your compiler from radio button or from drop down list.

4.       Step4: Click on “Compile & Run” button to compile and execute your programs.

5.       Step5: You will get output of your programs immediately in “Output” box.

Following are few of online compilers and editors available over internet.

1. C compiler
2. C++ compiler
3. Java Compiler
4. SQL editor
5. JavaScript
6. PHP
7. Python
8. C#
9. CSS
10. RUBY
11. Objective-C
12. Pascal
13. PERL
14. VB.NET
15. HTML

C interview questions:

Fresh2refresh.com provides C interview questions also for users. Once you have understood/learnt all the C programming language concepts, you can visit C Interview Questions for mostly asked C interview questions with answers. We have collected and integrated all different types of C interview questions with answers for our users.

C programs:

This C programs section offers many C programs which are useful for C programmers and students. Also, C programs are discussed in C program discussion Forum. If users look for any C programs that are not listed in this section, kindly create a new topic in our Forum.

Java certification questions:

Our Java certification questions provide all the information that you may need to prepare for Sun’s Java Certification. It covers all the topics of the Java Certification (SCJP) exam. Besides a large number of sample questions for each topic, the site has FAQ on Java Certification and links to a large number of Certification sites.


Fresh2Refresh.com – An online programming tutorial website for C programming, SQL tutorial, Java tutorial, online compiler, C++ tutorial, Unix tutorial etc.)

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